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Consejos Para La Diabetes Le Diabete Conseils

Diabetes Tips

Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus (m?li't?s), is a chronic disorder of glucose (sugar) metabolism caused by inadequate production or use of insulin, a hormone produced in specialized cells (beta cells in the islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas that allows the body to use and store glucose.

It is a leading cause of death in the United States and is especially prevalent among African Americans. The treatment of diabetes was revolutionized when F. G. Banting and C. H. Best isolated insulin in 1921.

Last Updated - 2nd November 2005

The Disorder

The lack of insulin results in an inability to metabolize glucose, and the capacity to store glycogen (a form of glucose) in the liver and the active transport of glucose across cell membranes are impaired. The symptoms are elevated sugar levels in the urine and blood, increased urination, thirst, hunger, weakness, weight loss, and itching. Prolonged hyperglycemia (excess blood glucose) leads to increased protein and fat catabolism, a condition that can cause premature vascular degeneration and atherosclerosis. Uncontrolled diabetes leads to diabetic acidosis, in which ketones build up in the blood. Patients have sweet-smelling breath, and may suffer confusion, unconsciousness, and death. There are two distinct types of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent.

Insulin-dependent Diabetes

Insulin-dependent diabetes (Type I), also called juvenile-onset diabetes, is the more serious form of the disease; about 10% of diabetics have this form. It is caused by destruction of pancreatic cells that make insulin and usually develops before age 30. Type I diabetics have a genetic predisposition to the disease. There is some evidence that it is triggered by a virus that changes the pancreatic cells in a way that prompts the immune system to attack them. The symptoms are the same as in the non-insulin-dependent variant, but they develop more rapidly and with more severity. Treatment includes a diet limited in carbohydrates and saturated fat, exercise to burn glucose, and regular insulin injections, sometimes administered via a portable insulin pump. Transplantation of islet cells has also proved successful since 1999, after new transplant procedures were developed, but the number of pancreases available for extraction of the islet cells is far smaller than the number of Type I diabetics. Patients receiving a transplant must take immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection of the cells.

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (Type 2), also called adult-onset diabetes, results from the inability of the cells in the body to respond to insulin. About 90% of diabetics have this form, which is more prevalent in minorities and usually occurs after age 40. Although the cause is not completely understood, there is a genetic factor and 90% of those affected are obese. As in Type I diabetes, treatment includes exercise and weight loss and a diet low in total carbohydrates and saturated fat. Some individuals require insulin injections; many rely on oral drugs, such as sulphonylureas, metformin, or acarbose.

Complications

Diabetes affects the way the body handles fats, leading to fat accumulation in the arteries and potential damage to the kidneys, eyes, heart, and brain, and statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs) may be prescribed to prevent heart disease. It is the leading cause of kidney disease. Many patients require dialysis or kidney transplants. Most cases of acquired blindness in the United States are caused by diabetes. Diabetes can also affect the nerves, causing numbness or pain in the face and extremities. A complication of insulin therapy is insulin shock, a hypoglycemic condition that results from an oversupply of insulin in relation to the glucose level in the blood.

RISK FACTORS for TYPE 2 DIABETES

SYMPTOMS

TREATMENT

SIGNS of LOW BLOOD SUGAR

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How to Prevent Diabetes

Pre-diabetes is a serious medical condition that can be treated. Diabetes Prevention studies conclusively showed that people with pre-diabetes can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes by making changes in their diet and increasing their level of physical activity. They may even be able to return their blood glucose levels to the normal range.

While studies also showed that some medications may delay the development of diabetes, diet and exercise worked better. Just 30 minutes a day of moderate physical activity, coupled with a 5-10% reduction in body weight, produced a 58% reduction in diabetes.

Diabetes and Diet

How Does Diabetes Affect Diet?

Normally, the body produces a hormone called insulin. With diabetes, the ability to make or utilize insulin is impaired. Without insulin, the body can't properly use glucose, the simple sugar the body produces from the food we eat. Insulin is the key that unlocks cells and lets the glucose enter, thus providing energy for critical cell metabolism.

The regulation of blood sugar in the non-diabetic is automatic, adjusting to whatever foods are eaten. For the diabetic, however, extra care must be taken to balance food intake (and the resultant impact on blood sugar levels) with insulin injections, exercise and any other glucose altering activity.

Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes?

Not all carbohydrates are created equal, nor will they all affect your blood sugar in the same way. Researchers have created a glycemic index that ranks foods according to their ability to raise blood sugar.

The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. It compares foods gram for gram of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates that breakdown quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic indexes. The blood glucose response is fast and high. Carbohydrates that break down slowly, releasing glucose gradually into the blood stream, have low glycemic indexes.

Lowering insulin levels is not only a key ingredient in weight loss, but also the secret to long-term health. Low GI Diet makes weightloss achievable and sustainable.

What is the Significance of Glycemic Index?

What is Glycemic Load?

How to Switch to a Low GI Diet



Disclaimer: The Diabetes Tips / Information presented and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Tips And Treats . com and/or its partners.

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